[Emphasis] Extracts! What do you Say?We know the pill’s safe in the short term, but what happens to long-term users? Birth control pills have been used by more than 300 million women worldwide and have all been affected in the Long term!Birth control pills decrease the risk of certain cancers but increase the risk of others the longer they’re taken, according to the longest study ever done on the hormonal contraceptive. For long-term users, the benefits of the pill are still seen in diminished ovarian and endometrial cancers; but women who took the pill for more than eight years were twice as likely to get cervical cancer.
The study, published in the British Medical Journal, comes 50 years after the pill garnered FDA approval to help regulate the periods of women with menstrual disorders. Since then, it has also helped more than 300 million women worldwide avoid pregnancy by blocking ovulation. Because of controversy surrounding its use, researchers kept meticulous data about the women who first took it and the conditions they developed. Now the data have been analyzed, and findings indicate that the pill offers protective benefits for women who’ve used it: a reduction of cancer incidence between 3 percent and 12 percent. But long-term pill takers were 20 percent more likely to develop cancer.
The way birth control protects or damages a woman’s body is not known. One hypothesis suggests that by stopping ovulation, the pill protects the ovaries from the monthly damage caused by an egg breaking through the ovary during a woman’s natural menstrual cycle, thus preventing ovarian cancers. Another theory is that the hormone regulation induced by taking the pill protects organs, possibly through changes in the production of other non-sex hormones or the body’s ability to process sugar from foods, although both causes are purely speculative. “None of the mechanisms actually fit all the data, so we just have to say no one knows its precise beneficial or harmful effects,” says Dr. Philip Hannaford, a professor of General Practice and Primary Care at the University of Aberdeen and the lead author on the study.
Hannaford’s team analyzed data from more than 1 million British women who began taking the pill just after it was commercially introduced in 1968. “This study is good news for women,” Hannaford says, mentioning that for many women who worry about increased risk of breast cancer—previously linked to hormone therapies—the findings came as a relief.
However, increased cancer among long-term users was primarily cervical cancer, which was not aggressively screened for until 1975. “Cervical cancer can be picked up early and is eminently treatable,” says Hannaford. He recommends that women using the pill for a long time recognize they have an increased risk and remember to go in for their annual screenings.
Dr. Miriam Cremmer, a family planning specialist at New York University Medical Center, agrees that long-term pill users should not be too concerned. “I wouldn’t tell women to get off it at any point because of increased risk of cancer,” she says. Cremmer noted that she and her colleagues were not concerned because the risk increase was relatively small and only found for easily identified cancer types. “I don’t think it’s going to change prescriptions at all,” she says.
Different Authors Constituted these Findings. Many Thanks to Meredith Knight!
Why Men Sleep After Sex Is Not Somekind of
“Mumy Water Concept”
Secondly, research using positron emission tomography (PET) scans has shown that in order for a person to reach orgasm, a primary requirement is to let go of “all fear and anxiety.” Doing so also tends to be relaxing and might explain the tendency to snooze.
Then there is the biochemistry of the orgasm itself. Research shows that during ejaculation, men release a cocktail of brain chemicals, including norepinephrine, serotonin, oxytocin, vasopressin, nitric oxide (NO), and the hormone prolactin. The release of prolactin is linked to the feeling of sexual satisfaction, and it also mediates the “recovery time” that men are well aware of—the time a guy must wait before “giving it another go.” Studies have also shown that men deficient in prolactin have faster recovery times.
Prolactin levels are naturally higher during sleep, and animals injected with the chemical become tired immediately. This suggests a strong link between prolactin and sleep, so it’s likely that the hormone’s release during orgasm causes men to feel sleepy.
(Side note: prolactin also explains why men are sleepier after intercourse than after masturbation. For unknown reasons, intercourse orgasms release four times more prolactin than masturbatory orgasms, according to a recent study.)
Oxytocin and vasopressin, two other chemicals released during orgasm, are also associated with sleep. Their release frequently accompanies that of melatonin, the primary hormone that regulates our body clocks. Oxytocin is also thought to reduce stress levels, which again could lead to relaxation and sleepiness.
What about the evolutionary reasons for post-sex sleepiness? This is trickier to explain. Evolutionarily speaking, a man’s primary goal is to produce as many offspring as possible, and sleeping doesn’t exactly help in his quest. But perhaps since he cannot immediately run off with another woman anyway—damn that recovery time!—re-energizing himself via sleep may be the best use of his time.
And although there is conflicting information as to whether women feel sleepy after sex, a woman often falls asleep with the man anyway (or uses it for some key cuddling time), which is good news for him: it means she is not off finding another mate. When the man wakes up and she’s still there, he just might be ready to go again.
It’s also possible that sleepiness is just a “side effect” associated with a more evolutionarily important reason for the release of oxytocin and vasopressin. In addition to being associated with sleep, both chemicals are also intimately involved in what is called “pair bonding,” the social attachment human mates commonly share. The release of these brain chemicals during orgasm heightens feelings of bonding and trust between sexual partners, which may partially explain the link between sex and emotional attachment. This bond is favorable should the couple have a baby, as cooperative child rearing maximizes the young one’s chances for survival.
The bottom line is this: there are many potential biochemical and evolutionary reasons for post-sex sleepiness, some direct and some indirect—but no one has yet pinpointed the exact causes. One thing, however, is certain: we females better get used to it, because it doesn’t look likely to change anytime soon.
I will leave frustrated women with one final thought: if you are upset at the ubiquity of the post-sex snoring phenomenon, remember that things could be a lot worse. A recent survey of 10,000 men revealed that 48 percent actually fall asleep during sex.